Banknote Index

 

 

Catalog Information


Standard Catalog of World Paper Money General Issues

The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money General Issues covers banknotes issued between 1368 and 1960 by more than 230 note issuing authorities. The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money catalogs are often referred to as Pick catalogs due to their original author. Although there are significant inconstancies between the cataloging methodology used for different countries, missing variety information and other editing errors it is used as the standard for most banknotes due in large to it covering a large breadth of countries and their general banknote issues.


Standard Catalog of World Paper Money Modern Issues

The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money Modern Issues covers banknotes issued from 1961 until present. The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money catalogs are often referred to as Pick catalogs due to their original author. Although there are significant inconstancies between the cataloging methodology used for different countries, missing variety information and other editing errors it is used as the standard for most banknotes due in large to it covering a large breadth of countries and their general banknote issues.


Standard Catalog of World Paper Money Specialized Issues

The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money Specialized Issues covers banknotes issued by States, Municipalities and Private companies. The Standard Catalog of World Paper Money catalogs are often referred to as Pick catalogs due to their original author. Although there are significant inconstancies between the cataloging methodology used for different countries, missing variety information and other editing errors it is used as the standard for most banknotes due in large to it covering a large breadth of countries and their general banknote issues.


The Banknote Book

The Banknote Book is an attempt at a complete new catalog to cover all countries. This is an ongoing work, as of June 2014, 200 chapters of The Banknote Book have been published covering 20,477 types and varieties. Some notable exceptions exist for the larger countries/authorities e.g. England, France, Scotland and Spain. Even with only a partial covering the general level of reviews is very promising.


Some key features are:


Deutsches Notgeld Band 1 and 2 (Serienscheine and Reutergeld)

Deutsche Serienscheine (German Series) banknotes are covered by this two book catalog. Series banknotes issued by many Authorities in Germany from 1918 to 1922. Series banknotes were generally non circulating. The books are written in German but can be read with an English background with only a little effort for most entries. A color image is provided for most sets and the descriptions although often short are helpful. Covering of varieties is partial and although paper and watermark varieties are listed for a lot of notes serial number varieties (other than with and without serial number) and color variations are not. For the non inflation notgeld collector Bands 1 and 2 are likely to be the most important catalogs of the series followed by Bands 5 and 6.


Deutsches Notgeld Band 3 (Grossgeld 1918-1921)

This catalog covers Grossgeld issues denominations 1mk to 100mk. The book is written in German but can be read with an English background with only a little effort for most entries. A black and white images of one side of one banknote for most sets is available. Detailed information on possible stamps, serial number sizes, serial number fonts, serial number prefixes and watermarks is given.


Deutsches Notgeld Band 4 (Inflation 08/1922-06/1923)

This catalog covers early Inflation issues from August 1922 through to June 1923. The book is written in German but can be read with an English background with only a little effort for most entries. A black and white images of one side of one banknote for most sets is available. Detailed information on possible stamps, serial number sizes, serial number fonts, serial number prefixes and watermarks is given.


Deutsches Notgeld Band 5 and 6 (Verkehrsausgaben)

Deutsche Kleingeldscheine Amtliche Verkesausgaben (German small value circulating banknotes issued by local groups and town authorities) banknotes are covered by this two book catalog between 1916 and 1922. The books are written in German but can be read with an English background with only a little effort for most entries. A color image is provided for most sets and the descriptions although often short are helpful. Covering of varieties is partial. For the non inflation notgeld collector Bands 1 and 2 are likely to be the most important catalogs of the series followed by Bands 5 and 6.


Deutsches Notgeld Band 9 (Notgeld der Besonderen Art)

Notgeld der besonderen Art Linen, Silk, Leather, Aluminium Foil and Wooden banknotes issued between 1917-1923. This catalog is written in German however most banknote information can be understood with an English background. There are also larger sections of text that require a more in-depth knowledge of German to read. Many stamp, date and border varieties are not listed however the base information is quite helpful.


Kai Lindman Das Wertbeständige Notgeld von 1923/1924

Wertbeständige, fixed price banknotes. Banknotes denominated in Rye, Gas, Electricity and other commodities as well as Gold Marks. These banknotes were issued when faith in the Mark had collapsed. This catalog is written in German however most banknote information can be understood with an English background. The catalog is in black and white, the images are large and clear. Varity information is good and clearly shown.


Das Notgeld Portugals 1917-1922

Carl Siemsen "Das Notgeld Portugals 1917-1922" Band 41 Der Schriftenreihe "Die Munze" 1st ed. 1973
German language publication in pamphlet format. Contains only a few black and white note images. Provides a listing of all Notgeld printed for use in mainland Portugal for the period 1917-1922, made available to the author. Siemsen includes 527 listings, sorted alphabetically by location of issue and issuing authority. All date, denomination, varieties are then listed under that particular number. No price or rarity index.
Very interesting background information, in German, provided. For example, contains background information on how the issuing of emergency notes in Portugal mutated from targeted usage to alleviate currency shortage to issues solely issued to satisfy collector demand. The Portuguese government forbade the issuing of Notgeld in 1922 and thus this lucrative source of revenue for smaller Portuguese communities came to an end. A discussion on the reasons on why certain conurbations were prolific issuers of Notgeld is also included. Review by Paul Neumann


Low Value Emergency Paper Money of Portugal

Mario S. de Almeida "Low Value Emergency Paper Money of Portugal" "General Catalogue and Appendix" Sociedade Portuguesa de Numismatica Porto 1980 & 1982
This pair of catalogs published in 1980 & 1982 contains the most complete listing of emergency paper money issued in Portugal in 1891 and between 1917 and 1921. Almost 3000 individual notes are listed. This also includes some emergency issues used in Portuguese colonies. The author admits that in colonies section the listing it is far from complete. No prices are mentioned, however, the author's includes a rarity index: common, scarce, rare, very rare. Review by Paul Neumann


Eduardo Colantonio "Bonos de Emergencia de Argentina"

Published in Spanish in Argentina in 2010. Author provides color scans for all denominations. Provides information on Bonos signatories, as far as available. Prices for VF and UNC examples provided. From my point-of-view, certain examples are extremely rare and pricing information is speculative. On the other hand certain examples are extremely common like the A1 from Tucuman which trade in bulk for pennies and a minimum price of US$1 is used.
This guide misses out on local quasi private issues which were released by tourism and other authorities mainly in Cordoba Province. On the other hand, besides individual price lists available from Argentine dealers on the Internet, it is the best source of information available. The Pick catalog for Specialized Issues also lists Argentine emergency notes for this period but is sorely incomplete. Review by Paul Neumann


Korean Coins and Banknotes Catalogue

This is the standard catalog used by collectors and dealers of numismatics in South Korea. 79 pages out more than 335 pages are devoted to paper money in the 2017 edition.
This book contains pricing information in Korean Won for up to five grades. Photos of almost all type notes in color are listed. Although this book is almost entirely in Korean script it is an essential tome for the collector and dealer in Korean numismatic items for an accurate picture of the Korean market. Market performance for select numismatic items, over the years, is also enclosed. Review by Paul Neumann


Banknotes of the Ottoman Empire - Mehmet Gacıroğlu - Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmaniyye kâğıt para kataloğ

Masterpiece published in 2011 listing a wide range of Ottoman paper money. Prices in up to four grades in US$ Color scans for almost all types and sub-types.
Contents as follows

  • Preface detailing events surrounding the politics of note issue
  • Abbreviations used in the catalog
  • Names and periods of employment of Ottoman finance ministers
  • Sultan Abdulmecid issues
  • Sultan Abdulaziz issues
  • Sultan V. Murad issues
  • Sultan II. Abdulhamid issues
  • Sultan V. Mehmad Resad issues
  • Sultan VI. Mehmed Vahdeddin issues
  • Imperial Ottoman Bank Issues
  • Specimen notes
  • Color Essays
  • Errors
  • Cancelled notes
  • Counterfeits
  • Postage Stamp Currencies
  • Bonds used as Currency
  • Foreign notes used on Ottoman territory
  • Enver Pasha notes
  • Municipality currencies
  • Currency sketches
  • Endorsements on notes
  • Paper tokens

Review by Paul Neumann


Banknotes of Ottoman Empire - Mehmet Seracettin Tezçakın

Mehmet Seracettin Tezçakın's coffee table size book containing scans of Ottoman paper money in his collection plus a few others - acknowledged - and complete background information. 221 pages in full color with signature lists, watermark examples but not including a price list or rarity scale. This book was the best available in the market for Ottoman currency until Mehmet Gacıroğlu's opus with a similar title in English, published six years later.
Main contents are as follows:

  • Introduction, Chronology (which notes were issued when), Finance Ministers of the era
  • State issues of the 6 Sultans
  • Ottoman Imperial Bank issues
  • Postal Stamp currencies
  • Specimens
  • Republic Banknotes with Ottoman Script
  • Errors
  • Annulments (cancellations)
  • Counterfeits
  • Bonds used as currency
  • Municipal issues
  • Paper tokens
  • Issues by foreign powers on Ottoman territory
  • Features of banknotes: Toughras, Seals, Signatures, Ottoman bank stamps, Emission stamps, Watermarks, Endorsements, Numbers and Dates (quantities issued)

Review by Paul Neumann


Renniks 23rd Edition Australian Coin & Banknote Values

Venerable publication, edited by Alan B. Pitt of Renniks Publications. This catalog is regarded as one of the catalogs used by Australian dealers to arrive at a retail value for their stock. This catalog is issued approximately every two years on average and contains listings for all coins and paper money issued by government mints or authorized by a government authority. This means that chits and store company tokens are not included. Besides pre-Federation, Sterling and Dollar issues, specimens, special issues and collectible serial numbers including first and last prefixes, paper currency from Hay Internment Camp and Cocos Keeling Islands are also listed and priced.

Review by Paul Neumann


World War II Remembered (Schwan/Boling)

Published in 1995, authors F. Schwan & J. Boling released a long awaited catalog of mainly numismatic items released into circulation by the Allies, Axis powers, neutrals and occupied states prior to and during WW2 and its immediate aftermath. Not limited to coins and paper money a host of other items such as bonds, chits, medals, tokens & lottery tickets etc are also mentioned.
Photos are in black and white but all are of good quality. This book weighs over 2 1/2 kilos and is still available at prices of approximately $100 AUD and up as of 2017. While prices on some items may now seem low, after over two decades, this book still belongs on the shelf for all interested in numismatic items of this era. Unfortunately this work has not been modernized and reprinted.

Review by Paul Neumann


The Banknotes of Moçambique by Colin Owen

Quirky thin pamphlet like book issued by self-described South African professional crocodile and elephant hunter. This 40 page black and white book contains a fully priced account of the Notgeld issued in Mozambique in 1920 & 1974. Also contained is a priced listing for Mozambican notes from 1877 onwards. From 1914, three grades are used and priced in South African Rand: VG, VF & UNC.
Printed and released in 1976, there has been a monumental change in the value of the Rand. If one assumes that 1 Rand in 1976 has the same purchasing power as 40 Rand in 2017 one could do research in the accuracy of prices in the catalog. For example, the 10 centavos 'Porto' issue 1920 Pick 62 is listed as R35 in VG or R1400 (2017 value), sold for US$230 in VG by Lyn Knight in a 2014 auction. The note has increased at more than double the rate of loss of currency value. The 20 Escudos 1937 Issue Pick 74 is listed at R80 in UNC or R3200 (2017 value), sold for US$218 in UNC61 by Heritage in 2011. In this case the Heritage price is approx. 90% of catalog price. In other words one can regard 1 Rand to be equivalent to approximately US$3 or A$4.
For the collector of Portuguese Colonial paper note series this slight volume is very useful. Copies occasionally surface on the South African collector market. The author Colin Owen has a strong interest in militaria and is a IBNS member.

Review by Paul Neumann


Les Billets Français Vingtième Siècle by Claude Fayette

Claude Fayette, one of France's main book editors and publishers for paper money catalogs, issued this 3rd edition back in 1994. Full colour scans for all 20th century issues, this is the companion catalog to the 19th Century issues compendium also published by Claude Fayette.
Background details in to production techniques, rarity, signature varieties, errors are also covered. As an almost A4 sized volume with 200+ pages it is not so convenient to carry around to numismatic fairs. Smaller and lighter catalogs for France exist but without the wealth of information found here that is why the latest published edition is dated 1997.

Review by Paul Neumann


Oeang Noesantara by UnO

Published and launched by the author Uno in Indonesia in February 2015, this book is what I regard the most complete and well researched book on Indonesian currency today. The only information lacking is that pertaining to coins issued for circulation on Indonesian territory prior to 1945. Among its many strong features is an emphasis on clear and concise text, attractive color scans and a historical perspective on paper money issues including background historical information. Examples of the many forgeries plaguing Indonesian numismatics are also given.
The text is in Bahasa Indonesia, 510 pages + adverts and countless color scans. Despite the language, those not familiar with Indonesian should still be able to use the book with ease due to its chronological structure.
In a concise form these are the contents:

  • Introduction, information on how to use the catalog, grading
  • Short history of the Netherlands East Indies leading to the issuing of circulating currency
  • Catalog starting with the 27 December 1782 Batavia issue and the first proper color scan starting with the 1 Rijksdaaler 26 April 1796 issue.
  • Regional issues during the War of Independence
  • WW2 issues under Japanese occupation and regional liberation issues
  • Postwar issues including many varities and special collector issues
  • Test notes and training notes
  • Coins issues in Indonesia from 1945 to 2014
  • Portraits of presidents and signatories of Javasche Bank issues 19th century to 1951
  • Portraits and signatories of Bank Indonesia governors 1953 to 2013
  • Portraits and signatories of Finance Ministers from 1945 to 2014
  • Portraits of Netherlands Indies governors and Indonesian Presidents
  • Bibliography - this is extensive! includes relevant websites

Review by Paul Neumann


New Zealand Coin and Banknote Catalogue by John Bertrand

A now yearly listing of all New Zealand paper money and coins issued for use in New Zealand and dependencies. New Zealand Trading note issuers for pre 1934 paper currency all perfunctorily mentioned. Useful for expanding on serial number ranges and varieties and market prices closer to New Zealand dealer valuations. Market and wholesale valuations of items especially modern mint products is often significantly less than listed in this catalog. Printed as a small pamphlet sized book.

Review by Paul Neumann


Greek Paper Money Volume 1 By Theodore Pitioudis

Well photographed with images in full colour with listing far exceeding that covered by Pick. The first volume covers the period from the beginning of paper money issuance in present Greece until the founding of the Bank of Greece in 1927. The second volume covers the period from 1927 until the advent of the Euro in 2002.
Due to the fact that besides only later date notes are relatively plentiful, along with Bank of Crete and postage stamp money & for certain small state notes, pricing is speculative. Unfortunately one grade is used and this varies from Fine to UNC. The reasoning about why a particular grade has been chosen is not explained. A rough relationship guide to calculate pricing based on a single price would have been helpful or alternatively a rarity scale. Pricing is in Euros and was supposed to be valid as of July 2000 - a boom time for the Greek economy!
The following notes and periods are covered;

  • Provisional Administration 1822 - 1827
  • National Finance Bank 1831 - 1832
  • National Bank of Greece 1841 - 1927
  • Ionian Bank 1839 - 1920
  • Bank of Epirothessaly 1882 - 1899
  • Bank of Crete 1901 - 1919
  • Therissos Patriotic Loan 1905
  • Small state note (emergency issues) 1917
  • Postage stamp money (emergency issues) 1922
  • Greek Military Union 1906
  • Biglietti ( private company issues circulating in the Ottoman Empire, Russia & Harbin)

Review by Paul Neumann


Prisoner of War and Concentration Camp Money 2nd Ed. by Lance Campbell

Occasional black and white scans, almost fully priced in US$ over almost 200 pages. Valuable work that should be seen as a companion price guide to the "World War Remembered - history in your hands" reviewed above. The authors of which also contributed towards this volume. The scope of this book extends to the WW1, WW2 plus immediate aftermath. Aftermath because of the various scrip issued in displacement camps populated by WW2 victims and mainly US POW Camps containing Axis soldier prisoners. A minute section at the end of the book contains paper issues supposedly issued by Viet Minh forces in Vietnam. The author contends that all of thse issues are fantasies ie they never really circulated in the field of operations.
Individual country chapters are listed alphabetically and chronologically. I will use Belgium as an example, the contents are: Paper Issues, World War 1, Military Decorations for World War 1 and World War 2. Another example, Great Britain: Paper Issues: Anglo-Boer War, World War 1, 1919 Irish War of Independence, World War 2 Prisoners of War, Displaced Persons, Metal Issues: World War 1, World War2. A bibliography and Camp index completes this book.
These are the countries covered: Australia, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Soviet Union, Spain, United Nations, United States, Vietnam (Indo-China) and Yugoslavia. Missing many issues but still one of the best generalized works available.

Review by Paul Neumann


Chinese Banknotes by Ward D. Smith and Brian Matravers

Published in 1970 this work is a seminal effort to popularize an at the time poorly researched corner of world numismatics - Chinese paper money. This field included all notes, for which information existed at the time; state issues, provincial issues, private banks, commercial currency, notes from Macau, Hong Kong and Taiwan etc.
As no assistance was available from the - potentially - most important source of information, the Peoples' Republic of China due to the virulent political unrest ie the Cultural Revolution then taking place. Main assistance to assemble information came from the US, Hong Kong, Japan and Taiwan involving such luminaries as Howard F. Bowker, Aldo P. Basso (a specialist and author of Philippine numismatics), K. O. Mao (author of his own catalog on Chinese paper money).
Over 5000 notes are described with 1800 items illustrated in black & white clearly definable scans. There is one price column and it appears that this catalog was less used for determining the value of one's notes but more to compare values relative to other notes. Prices quoted would have no relevance today due to strong interest for notes from mainland China, hoards of certain items reaching the market and changing Collector' tastes.
The Catalog is divided into the following Sections

  • Listing Format and Criteria
  • Stroke Count Index (incredibly helpful in identifying notes without European script)
  • Alphabetical listing
  • Appendices (information on the following)
  • Dating
  • Numbers
  • Monetary Units
  • Printers
  • Block Printed Notes
  • Place Names
  • Overprints
  • Unlisted Types
  • Partially Listed Types
  • Category and Location Index
  • Prices

Review by Paul Neumann